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This Brown@50 site provides special value for cases in three main respects:  (1) the cases collected here all relate to Brown in some fashion, (2) there are links to the biographies of the lead attorneys in Brown from the relevant cases, and (3) it is free. Links to the cases are found in the Index to Cases and the Chronology.  The cases are available on the Brown@50 website in either html or pdf formats or in a few instances both.  More sophisticated markups of the cases with crosslinking to other cases fotnoes and the like are available from solely commercial vendors like Westlaw and Lexis, and from Findlaw which has both commercial parts and free parts, and from Cornell's Legal Information Institute which is a free site. Official versions of the more recent cases can often be found at the particular court's website such as the U.S. Supreme Court, or other U.S. federal courts.


California Proposition 209

Constitution of the State of California 1879

Article I.  Declaration of Rights

§ 31. Discrimination based on race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin; gender-based qualifications in public employment, education, or contracting

Sec. 31. (a) The state shall not discriminate against, or grant preferential treatment to, any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in the operation of public employment, public education, or public contracting.

(b) This section shall apply only to action taken after the section's effective date.

(c) Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as prohibiting bona fide qualifications based on sex which are reasonably necessary to the normal operation of public employment, public education, or public contracting.

(d) Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as invalidating any court order or consent decree which is in force as of the effective date of this section.

(e) Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as prohibiting action which must be taken to establish or maintain eligibility for any federal program, where ineligibility would result in a loss of federal funds to the state.

(f) For the purposes of this section, "state" shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the state itself, any city, county, city and county, public university system, including the University of California, community college district, school district, special district, or any other political subdivision or governmental instrumentality of or within the state.

(g) The remedies available for violations of this section shall be the same, regardless of the injured party's race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin, as are otherwise available for violations of then-existing California antidiscrimination law.

(h) This section shall be self-executing. If any part or parts of this section are found to be in conflict with federal law or the United States Constitution, the section shall be implemented to the maximum extent that federal law and the United States Constitution permit. Any provision held invalid shall be severable from the remaining portions of this section.